COVID-19: Review of a 21st Century Pandemic from Etiology to Neuro-psychiatric Implications
The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) states that the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has registered 15,785,641 confirmed cases globally and 640,016 deaths as of July 26, 2020 .
The first case of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported by Dr. Li Wenliang, an ophthalmologist inWuhan China in December 2019. This respiratory disease presented similar symptoms to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2003. It was later named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) . COVID-19 affects every age group; however, the elderly are more prone to a severe symptom display and have a higher mortality rate. Even with the majority of affected people being under the age of 65 (83.2%), people over the age of 65 still stands for 79.5% of all COVID-19 related deaths in the United States (US) . An average of 13.3% of people over the age of 65 have a proven neurological comorbidity, including dementia . Although the elderly population is most severely affected by the illness, a new study has found a higher SARS-CoV-2 viral RNAload in young children’s nasopharynx than what had previously been found in older children (>5 years old) and adults . Young children might therefore be far more likely to spread the virus than the anticipated asymptomatic spreaders. In other words, individuals of all age groups are prone to both contracting and spreading the virus, even when mild or no symptoms are present .
In recent monthsmany papers have been published, criticized, discredited, and retracted. Thus,webelieve this comprehensive review could update scientists about the state-of-the-science and technology and clarify any ambiguity about the current diagnostics and therapeutics strategies for COVID-19.